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跨越半命题作文

跨越半命题作文(一)

一. 中心句扩展

1. 举例法:数据举例 (人物举例和事件/故事举例不推荐使用)

2. 原因法:通过摆原因来支持中心

1) 因果连词连接表示因果关系:because of; due to; owing to; thanks to; because; since; as; for

2) 动词短语连接表示因果关系:contribute to, give rise to, bring about, result in

3) 状语连接表示因果关系:非谓语动词结构 (分词做状语)和with引导的介宾短语结构放在主谓结构之前

3. 结果法:通过阐述中心句可能带来的进一步的好的或坏的结果来达到对中心句的支持

1) 因果连词连接表示结果:

As a result; As a matter of fact; Therefore; Consequently; … will undoubtedly …; By doing this; Only in this way

2) 非限制性定语从句表示结果

4. 正反论证法:如果中心句是正着说,则反过来假设;如果中心句是反着说,则从正面直接阐述。

正反扩展的句型结构:Without…, one couldn’t even…, let alone / speak nothing of…

Eg. 中心句:The digital products play a vital role in people’s work.

扩展句:Without those products, one couldn’t even finish his office work in time, let alone in such a efficient way.

5. 细节化法:中心句相对抽象和概括,后面通过对中心句里的某核心概念进一步进行细节化描述来支持,实际上与中

心句是一种同义关系。

6. 实例一:(举例法、原因法、结果法)

Increasing Time Spent on English Study

1) 现在大学生花在英语学习上的时间越来越多

 中心句:College students tend to spend greater amount of time on their English study.

 扩展句:数字举例法

According to a recent survey conducted by CEM— China Education Ministry, the past 15 years has witnessed a

sharp increase from 3.8 to 14.5 hours in the average time that students spent on English study per week.

2) 为什么大学生会花更多的时间来学习英语

 中心句:To account for this phenomenon, people have come up with various reasons listed below.

 扩展句一 (原因法):首先,因为有越来越多的国际交流,英语在人们的工作和中作中必不可少。

① 用因果连词表示因果关系:

 In the first place, owing to increasing international communication, English is becoming a necessity in

people’s life and work.

 In the first place, because there is increasing international communication, English is becoming a necessity

in people’s life and work.

② 用动词短语表示因果关系

In the first place, the increasing international communication gives rise to the fact that English is becoming a

necessity in people’s life and work

③ 用状语连接表示因果关系

 In the first place, being widely used in increasing international communication, English is becoming a

necessity in people’s life and work.

 In the first place, with (there being) more and more international communication, English is becoming a

necessity in people’s life and work.

次要扩展句(结果法):所以,大学生当然不能落后于这个社会趋势。

① 用因果连词连接表示结果

As a matter of fact / As a result/ Therefore / Consequently, college students will certainly / undoubtedly not lag

behind this social trend.

② 用非限制性定语从句表示结果

 …, which in turn urges / requires students not to lag behind the social trend. 扩展句二(原因法):而且,英语流利的人能获得更好的工作机会这个事实也进一步导致了在英语学习上花

费时间的增多。

① 用因果连词表示因果关系:

Because those who can speak fluent English have a better chance in getting a good job, students tend to increase

time spent on English study.

② 用动词短语表示因果关系

What’s more, the fact that those who can speak fluent English have a better chance in getting a good job ③ 用状语连接表示因果关系

 Realizing the fact that those who can speak fluent English have a better chance in getting a good job,

students tend to increase time spent on English study.

 With better chances in getting a good job offered to those who can speak fluent English, students tend to

increase time spent on English study.

3) 大学生学习英语应该注意听说读写全面发展

 中心句: While in the process of learning English, students should pay attention to improving both their written

and verbal ability.

 扩展句(结果法):只有这样他们才能在真正意义上掌握英语。

① 用因果连词连接表示结果

Only in this way can they grasp English in a real sense.

② 用非限制性定语从句表示结果

…, only by which they can grasp English in a real sense.

7. 实例二 (正反论证法、细节化法、举例法、结果法)

How to Keep Healthy

1) 人人都希望健康

 中心句:Everybody in this world hopes to keep healthy.

 扩展句(正反论证法):没有一个好的身体,一个人甚至连过正常的生活都不可能,更别提幸福的生活了。

Without a good health, one couldn’t even live a normal life, let alone a happy life.

2) 如何保持健康

 中心句:There are several ways to keep healthy.

 扩展句一(细节化法):首先,一个人应该坚持经常锻炼身体。

To begin with, one should keep to doing regular physical exercise.

次要扩展句 (结果法):只有这样,一个人不仅可以每天保持良好的身体状态也可以保持好心情。

① 用因果连词表示结果:

By doing this, one cannot only keep himself in good physical condition but also stay in a good mood every day.

② 用非限制性定语从句表示结果:

…, by which one cannot only keep himself in good physical condition but also stay in a good mood every day.

 扩展句二(细节化法):另外,均衡饮食对于保持健康也很重要

In addition, having a balanced diet is also of great importance to keeping healthy.

次要扩展句 (举例法):根据世界卫生组织最新调查表明,2006年人们所患疾病的34.7%都是由吸收过多的

脂肪而引起。

According to a recent survey conducted by WHO— World Health Organization, a high proportion (34.7%) of

 diseases that people suffered from in 2006 were caused by taking too much fat. 扩展句三 (细节化法):而且,一个人应该注意不要有太多的压力

One should pay attention not to have too much pressure.

次要扩展句(细节化法):保持稳定和规律性的日常生活以及缓解经济压力会无疑改善一个人的健康水平。

Having stable and routine everyday life and reliving economic pressure will undoubtedly improve one’s health.

3) 我是如何保持健康的

 中心句:As to me, I play table tennis for an hour every day and I take everything easy. 扩展句 (结果法):

① 因果连词表示结果:

By doing this, both of my body and mind are refreshed and hence I keep myself stay in a good health.

② 用非限制性定语从句表示结果:

…, by which both of my body and mind are refreshed and hence I keep myself stay in a good health.

…, which refresh both my body and mind and hence keep me stay in a good health.

二. 句子结构优化

1. 避免低级错误:词性错误、主谓不一致、句子不完整、断句错误

2. 如何美化句子

1) 并列平行结构:增强文章节奏感,使行文流畅,富有韵律

① 词的并列:I want to be a man with sharp, vivid and imaginative mind.

② 短语的并列:Snapping the power line, paralyzing the public transportation and destroying houses and farmland, the

sleet and icy temperature have caused great loss and inconvenience to the people.

③ 句子的并列(排比):If everyone if grateful, our society will be more harmonious, our family will have more 2) 非谓语动词结构:动词不定式、动名词、现在分词和过去分词。使句子结构紧凑、逻辑严谨。

Eg. ① ② ③ Their lack of necessary discipline make some students indulge in computer games and net world, forgetting their ④ Weighing up these two preferences, I prefer the former one.

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